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Due to the specialist nature of acoustics, it can often be required in unexpected fields. The varied skillsets offered at CSA can be utilised in projects further in specialist territory. This can include; vibration, forensic audio/acoustic analysis and underwater noise. Where required, CSA also can offer Expert Witness services.

Places of Worship

Using specialised equipment and techniques, our experienced team can offer unique services in this sector.  From assessing the noise impact of bell towers, vibration monitoring of 14th Century buildings against external development, assessing the reverberation requirements for organ use, and repurposing internal spaces for mixed uses, these somewhat unusual projects offer refreshing engineering challenges requiring the highest levels of professional expertise.


Vibration is just like sound in air, but travelling through solid matter, much faster, and in a variety of different wave forms. OK, not that similar then, but it is another area in which CSA can offer considerable expertise in prediction, measurement and assessment. The most common sources are trains (both over and under ground) demolition equipment and piling, but we have also looked at tunnel boring machines, running machines, quarry and mining noise, and even fracking.

Forensic Audio Analysis

Audio forensics (as opposed to Forensic Acoustic Analysis) concerns the investigation of sound recorded or transmitted by electronic means, to help our clients find the answer to their audio enigmas. Recent projects include analysis of telephone recordings to determine whether answers to pre-recorded messages were genuine, or whether calls have been duplicated. For Sky News, we dissected the audio that was broadcasted during a Russian news programme, looking for evidence, such as data discontinuities, artefacts or unusual spectral distribution, of whether the phone call that formed the subject of the show was genuine, or otherwise. 

Forensic Acoustics Analysis

Acoustic forensics (as opposed to Forensic Audio Analysis) tends to involve attempting to resolve legal issues by applying the principles of acoustics, using the relevant technology and procedures to aid investigations. One example could be undertaking experiments and calculations to determine ‘whether that person could have clearly heard that being said over there in that environment’. At the other end of the callipers are diagnostic investigations that we have undertaken to determine the causes and locations of poor sound insulation performance in party walls and floors. In a nutshell, we have the code of acoustics cracked, and that means we’re one step closer to finding a solution to your acoustical conundrums.

Underwater Noise

With the proliferation of offshore windfarms, tidal barrages, and technological advancements increasing the likelihood of undersea mining in the near future, underwater noise is one of our specialist areas experiencing increasing demand. 

Our experience in the measurement of both background noise levels and specific events such as piling, dredging and marine traffic means that we appreciate the special requirements for underwater noise measurements and assessment of impact on fish and marine mammals.

Obligations under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive are a driver in encouraging assessors to assist in improving our understanding of environmental noise levels in the marine environment.